Category: Academic English & Academic English
Adverb Clauses (Part Two)
Adverb clauses to show cause and effect
Adverb of clauses of cause and effect start with because, now that, and since and show why something happens and its consequences.
Because Because I was tired, I went to bed soon.
I went to bed soon because I was tired,
Make sure to identify the correct cause and effect.
Because I went to bed soon I was tired.
Now that Now that I have graduated from university, I am going to take a trip to Chicago.
Jack left the company. Now that he is fun-employed, he cannot pay his university tuition.
Note: Now that means because now and it is used with present, present perfect and future senses.
Since Since tomorrow is very frigid, we are going to call off the class.
Since you have a lot to do, you do not have to go to the party tonight.
Note: since means “because” and when it is used in cause-and-effect sentences, it means “given the fact that X is true, Y is the result.”
Exercise: Compare each pair of sentences with the words in parenthesis.
1- There are little chances we fail the test. We studied very hard for it. (now that)
2- We will not miss our family. We can talk with them online. (because)
3- People post online reviews instantly. Customer service has improved. (since)
Expressing contrast (unexpected results): Using even though:
Because shows expected result.
Ex1: I failed the test because I didn’t study hard.
Ex: I didn’t return the blouse I bought because it was fit to me.
Even though shows unexpected result.
Ex: Even though the weather was icy and cold, I went swimming.
Ex: I went to bed early even though I wasn’t tired.
Exercise: Complete the sentences with because or even though
1- Tim speaks English very well _____________________ he lived in England for 5 years.
2- Sherlock didn’t learn English _____________________ she lived in US for a couple of years.
3- Rayan is in good shape apparently ____________________ he doesn’t exercise regularly.
Using the adverb clause to show direct contrast
While it is used to indicate a direct contradiction in the sentences. “A” is opposite of “B”
Ex: Mary is smart, while Jay is lazy.
Ex: While I am amazed, my sister is disappointed.
Note: A comma should be used even if the while-clause comes second.