Category: General English & Academic English
Level: Upper Intermediate
1- To compare things or people
Make / draw a comparison: it is used to compare two or more people or things and indicate how they are the same.
Ex:In my essay I make a comparison between nature genius and nurture genius.
Ex: Possibly, you can draw a comparison between academic English and general English.
Note: Make a comparison is less formal than draw a comparison.
Draw an analogy: show the similarity of two situations
Ex:The boss in their organization tried to draw an analogy between the activeness of men and women.
draw a parallel:it is used to show some aspects of two very different things are the same.
Ex: Parallel can be drawn betweenher paintings and Public Picasso.
Liken somebody/something to (Phrasal Verb):to say something is someone is similar to another thing or person.
Ex: Smoking is usually likened to drug addiction.
Contrast (transitive verb):itshows how two things are different from each other.
Ex:In his essay, he contrasts the lives in different circumstances.
make / draw a distinction between:to show the differences between two things.
Ex:It is very important to make a distinction between TOEFL iBT and IELTs international exams.
Ex: The author draws a distinction between life of men and women in foreign countries.
Concluding your essay or argument
To summarize / to sum up refer to summarizing the main points you already mentioned.
Ex:To summarize: there are many obstacles you have to deal with to reach your dreams.
Note. To summarize or to sum up are usually used at the beginning of a final paragraph in an essay or article. The can be followed by either a comma or a semicolon.
In this … I have tried / attempted to: used at the end the end of an article, essay and report to mention the summary of the paper.
Ex: In this essay, I have tried to set out the mean effects of understanding foreign languages.
Ex: In this report, we have attempted to demonstrate the disadvantages of smoking.
something can be summarized as follows: saying the main points about something.
Ex: The internet network main aim can be summarized as follows: to connect people around the world, to decrease distances among people and to do business.