Positive Redundancy part 3


Skill: Vocabulary

Category: General English & Academic English

Level: Upper Intermediate

Positive Redundancy

1- To compare things or people

Make / draw a comparison: it is used to compare two or more people or things and indicate how they are the same.

Ex:In my essay I make a comparison between nature genius and nurture genius.

Ex: Possibly, you can draw a comparison between academic English and general English.

Note: Make a comparison is less formal than draw a comparison.

Draw an analogy: show the similarity of two situations

Ex:The boss in their organization tried to draw an analogy between the activeness of men and women.  

draw a parallel:it is used to show some aspects of two very different things are the same.


Ex: Parallel can be drawn betweenher paintings and Public Picasso.

Liken somebody/something to (Phrasal Verb):to say something is someone is similar to another thing or person.

Ex: Smoking is usually likened to drug addiction.

Contrast (transitive verb):itshows how two things are different from each other.

Ex:In his essay, he contrasts the lives in different circumstances.

make / draw a distinction between:to show the differences between two things.

Ex:It is very important to make a distinction between TOEFL iBT and IELTs international exams.

Ex: The author draws a distinction between life of men and women in foreign countries.

2- Concluding

Concluding your essay or argument


To summarize / to sum up refer to summarizing the main points you already mentioned.

Ex:To summarize: there are many obstacles you have to deal with to reach your dreams.

Note. To summarize or to sum up are usually used at the beginning of a final paragraph in an essay or article. The can be followed by either a comma or a semicolon.

In this … I have tried / attempted to: used at the end the end of an article, essay and report to mention the summary of the paper.  

Ex: In this essay, I have tried to set out the mean effects of understanding foreign languages.

Ex: In this report, we have attempted to demonstrate the disadvantages of smoking.

something can be summarized as follows: saying the main points about something.

Ex: The internet network main aim can be summarized as follows: to connect people around the world, to decrease distances among people and to do business.


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