Positive Redundancy part 6

Skill: Vocabulary

Category: General English & Academic English

Level: Upper Intermediate

Positive Redundancy

Part Six

1- Giving Exception:

Except: A statement that does not include a particular thing or person.

Ex: The company is open every day except Fridays.  

Apart from / aside from: used when mentioning one or two things that do not fit the main thing that you are saying, particularly when they are not important.

Ex: Aside from some mistakes that he made on the exam, he is a very adept student.

Ex: The singer was not very fantastic. Apart from that, it was a very good party.

Excluding/ not including: used to mention when something does not include in a particular group or thing

Ex: The computer costs $ 500, not including tax.

Ex: Excluding the computer operators, all other employees were fired out of the company.

Other than: this phrase is usually used in negative sentences meaning except

Ex: I have no interest other than being a consultant.

Ex: No one other than you, knows my secrets.

2- Words meaning reason

motive: the reason that gets someone to do something, especially something dishonest.

Ex: Why did they sentence him in jail? They had no motive.

Ex: They didn’t have any motives behind their decision.

ground: a reason that makes it right for someone to do something.

Ex: He was obliged to accept that troublesome position on purely economic grounds. (only for economic reason)

Ex: He was not allowed to enter the country on the grounds that he wanted to enter illegally. (for that reason)

Rationale: a series of reasons that someone uses to explain why they need to do something.

Ex: At the beginning of my presentation, I will strive to provide a rationale for the approach.

Ex: The teacher outlines or describes the rationale behind the failure of most of the students.

Justification: a reason why you think it is right to do something, especially something that seems wrong or unfair to other people

Ex: The government’s main justification for the taxes was to bring justice among the poor and rich people in the society.

Ex: There is no justification for killing a human being under and condition.

Basis: reasons, arguments, the main ideas etc on which something is based

Ex: There is no basis for what you said.

Ex: Piaget and Vygotsky provided a theoretical basis for cognitive development in humans.

pretext: a false reason that someone gives in order to hid their real reason for doing something

Ex: The debate, they used religion as a pretext for their thoughts.

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